GB 50026-2007 工程测量规范 英文版

GB 50026-2007 工程测量规范 英文版
1. General Provisions
1.0.1 For the purpose of unifying technical specifications of engineering survey, and thus make the survey utilize state-of-art technology and realize economic feasibility, ensure a reliable quality and safe application, this national standard is established hereby.

1.0.2 This national standard is applicable to general surveying work in engineering construction.

1.0.3 This national standard takes quadratic mean error as the standard in judging the plotting accuracy and two times the quadratic mean error is taken as the limit error. For projects with higher accuracy requirement, method in Annex A can be used in evaluating the observation accuracy.

Note: Quadratic mean error, closing error, tolerance and comparative difference, other than specified additionally, they shall all be expressed with variation of sign.

1.0.4 Instruments and related devices used in the engineering survey shall be checked and rectified timely, and maintenance shall be reinforced. Prophylactic repair is required.

1.0.5 Quoted measurement sources in the project shall be examined.

1.0.6 For all kinds of surveying work, not only the requirements stipulated in this standard (code), but also those in the current relevant ones of the nation shall be complied with.
2. Terms and Symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Satellite positioning
Determine the relative position of corresponding points on the surface by using two or more receivers to receive the signals of many position location satellites simultaneously.

2.1.2 Satellite positioning control network
Control Network established by using satellite positioning technology.

2.1.3 Triangular network
Control network formed by a chain of connected triangles. It is a general designation for the previously triangulation network, trilateration network and rim angle.

2.1.4 Triangular network survey
Method to determine the positions of control points through determining the horizontal angle of vertex, length of the sides of each triangle in the triangular network. It is a general designation for the previously triangulation, trilateration survey and triangulateration.

2.1.5 2″class instrument
2" class instrument refers to angular instrument with one measuring-process nominal quadratic mean error in horizontal direction as 2″, including total station instrument, electronic theodolite, and micrometer instrument. Definition methods for 1" class instrument and 6 "class instrument are similar.

2.1.6 5mm class instrument
5mm class instrument refers to instruments with ranging quadratic mean error as 5mm calculated by electrotape nominal accuracy equation when the range measurement is 1km, including range finder and total station instrument. Definition methods for 1mm class instrument and 10mm class instrument are similar.

2.1.7 .Digital topographic map
Topographic map stored in computer data format, made by computer based on terrain intelligence, certain rules and methods.

2.1.8 Paper topographic map
Orthograph that illustrates terrain intelligence with symbols, annotations and contour lines on paper or melinex

2.1.9 Deformation monitoring
The process of monitoring building (structure) and its foundation, foundation pit or displacement, settlement, inclination, flexivity, crack of rock mass or soil body in certain scope and related influencing factors (like underground water, temperature, stress-strain, etc.) and provide the prediction for deformation analysis.
2.2 Symbols
A--GPS Nominal fixed error of the receiver;
α——Nominal fixed error of electrotape;
B——Nominal ratio error coefficient of GPS receiver; width of tunnel excavation surface;
b——Nominal ratio error coefficient of electrotape;